Gifts of Islam to our world…a little known history


1001 Inventions – Discover the Muslim Heritage in our World: 

Did you know that…

…the basic scale in music today comes from Arabic syllables do, re, mi, fa, sol, la and ti? The Arabic alphabet for these notes is Dal-Ra-Mim-Fa-Sad-Lam-Sin?

…Al-Biruni, the 14th century physicist was able to calculate the circumference of the Earth and its tilt 600 years before Galileo? 

…the first operation to remove cataracts was carried out as early as the 10th century Iraq. Muslims also established the first apothecary shops and dispensaries?

…Al-Khwarizmi, a Persian scientist and mathematician, is credited with inventing algebra as we know it today. He composed the oldest works on arithmetic and algebra. They were the principal source of mathematical knowledge.

A remarkable exhibition has recently opened at the Manchester Museum of Science and Industry (UK), charting 1000 years of Islamic innovations  and contributions to science, technology, art, including things we take for granted today in our daily lives.  Spanning the 6th to the 16th centuries and covering a geographic region from China to southern Spain, this project, tailored towards educators and school children shares a discovery of the Muslim heritage in our world. 

1001 Muslim Inventions

The Islamic civilization, according to the curators of this UK-wide travelling exhibition, has made an enormous but largely neglected contribution to the way we live in the west.  So many of the origins of Western discoveries came from the Muslim heritage.  It is heartening to know that there are individuals, groups and organizations which are unearthing the wonderful aspects of contributions to our world at large by Muslims centuries ago.  Many on this extensive list (top 20 are listed below or go to the site –, for in depth listing) are ones most of us probably never knew originated in the Islamic world.  Bridging the gaping abyss of misunderstanding, underappreciation and ignorance of such a rich history is truly and sorely needed in the tumultuous and fearful world we now live in.   

“When Europe was living in the dark ages, Islamic civilisation was blossoming, and the advances during this period are more relevant to the modern world than those of the Ancient Egyptians and Aztecs.” – Professor Mark Halstead, a lecturer in moral education at Plymouth University as quoted in the Guardian Unlimited, March 10, 2006.

Time, knowledge and exposure can do so much to close the gap on such a misconstrued and under-appreciated world heritage.  If the leaders of this faith and Muslims-at-large could promote such findings, knowledge and values through various mediums as this exhibit does, what a wonderful gift to the world that would be, instead of the biased and backward view of Islam most of the world has of Muslims.

(The ‘1001 Inventions’ exhibition project launched by the Manchester Museum includes the exhibition, 1001 Inventions Book, dedicated website, educational posters, a weblog and a secondary school teacher’s guide pack).

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Associate Editor of the UK’s Independent newspaper, Paul Vallely nominates the top 20 of the most influential innovations and contributions made by Muslims (Independent, March 11, 2006):

1 The story goes that an Arab named Khalid was tending his goats in the Kaffa region of southern Ethiopia, when he noticed his animals became livelier after eating a certain berry. He boiled the berries to make the first coffee. Certainly the first record of the drink is of beans exported from Ethiopia to Yemen where Sufis drank it to stay awake all night to pray on special occasions. By the late 15th century it had arrived in Mecca and Turkey from where it made its way to Venice in 1645. It was brought to England in 1650 by a Turk named Pasqua Rosee who opened the first coffee house in Lombard Street in the City of London. The Arabic qahwa became the Turkish kahve then the Italian caffé and then English coffee.

2 The ancient Greeks thought our eyes emitted rays, like a laser, which enabled us to see. The first person to realise that light enters the eye, rather than leaving it, was the 10th-century Muslim mathematician, astronomer and physicist Ibn al-Haitham. He invented the first pin-hole camera after noticing the way light came through a hole in window shutters. The smaller the hole, the better the picture, he worked out, and set up the first Camera Obscura (from the Arab word qamara for a dark or private room). He is also credited with being the first man to shift physics from a philosophical activity to an experimental one.

3 A form of chess was played in ancient India but the game was developed into the form we know it today in Persia. From there it spread westward to Europe – where it was introduced by the Moors in Spain in the 10th century – and eastward as far as Japan. The word rook comes from the Persian rukh, which means chariot.

4 A thousand years before the Wright brothers a Muslim poet, astronomer, musician and engineer named Abbas ibn Firnas made several attempts to construct a flying machine. In 852 he jumped from the minaret of the Grand Mosque in Cordoba using a loose cloak stiffened with wooden struts. He hoped to glide like a bird. He didn’t. But the cloak slowed his fall, creating what is thought to be the first parachute, and leaving him with only minor injuries. In 875, aged 70, having perfected a machine of silk and eagles’ feathers he tried again, jumping from a mountain. He flew to a significant height and stayed aloft for ten minutes but crashed on landing – concluding, correctly, that it was because he had not given his device a tail so it would stall on landing. Baghdad international airport and a crater on the Moon are named after him.

5 Washing and bathing are religious requirements for Muslims, which is perhaps why they perfected the recipe for soap which we still use today. The ancient Egyptians had soap of a kind, as did the Romans who used it more as a pomade. But it was the Arabs who combined vegetable oils with sodium hydroxide and aromatics such as thyme oil. One of the Crusaders’ most striking characteristics, to Arab nostrils, was that they did not wash. Shampoo was introduced to England by a Muslim who opened Mahomed’s Indian Vapour Baths on Brighton seafront in 1759 and was appointed Shampooing Surgeon to Kings George IV and William IV.

6 Distillation, the means of separating liquids through differences in their boiling points, was invented around the year 800 by Islam’s foremost scientist, Jabir ibn Hayyan, who transformed alchemy into chemistry, inventing many of the basic processes and apparatus still in use today – liquefaction, crystallisation, distillation, purification, oxidisation, evaporation and filtration. As well as discovering sulphuric and nitric acid, he invented the alembic still, giving the world intense rosewater and other perfumes and alcoholic spirits (although drinking them is haram, or forbidden, in Islam). Ibn Hayyan emphasised systematic experimentation and was the founder of modern chemistry.

7 The crank-shaft is a device which translates rotary into linear motion and is central to much of the machinery in the modern world, not least the internal combustion engine. One of the most important mechanical inventions in the history of humankind, it was created by an ingenious Muslim engineer called al-Jazari to raise water for irrigation. His 1206 Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices shows he also invented or refined the use of valves and pistons, devised some of the first mechanical clocks driven by water and weights, and was the father of robotics. Among his 50 other inventions was the combination lock.

8 Quilting is a method of sewing or tying two layers of cloth with a layer of insulating material in between. It is not clear whether it was invented in the Muslim world or whether it was imported there from India or China. But it certainly came to the West via the Crusaders. They saw it used by Saracen warriors, who wore straw-filled quilted canvas shirts instead of armour. As well as a form of protection, it proved an effective guard against the chafing of the Crusaders’ metal armour and was an effective form of insulation – so much so that it became a cottage industry back home in colder climates such as Britain and Holland.

9 The pointed arch so characteristic of Europe’s Gothic cathedrals was an invention borrowed from Islamic architecture. It was much stronger than the rounded arch used by the Romans and Normans, thus allowing the building of bigger, higher, more complex and grander buildings. Other borrowings from Muslim genius included ribbed vaulting, rose windows and dome-building techniques. Europe’s castles were also adapted to copy the Islamic world’s – with arrow slits, battlements, a barbican and parapets. Square towers and keeps gave way to more easily defended round ones. Henry V’s castle architect was a Muslim.

10 Many modern surgical instruments are of exactly the same design as those devised in the 10th century by a Muslim surgeon called al-Zahrawi. His scalpels, bone saws, forceps, fine scissors for eye surgery and many of the 200 instruments he devised are recognisable to a modern surgeon. It was he who discovered that catgut used for internal stitches dissolves away naturally (a discovery he made when his monkey ate his lute strings) and that it can be also used to make medicine capsules. In the 13th century, another Muslim medic named Ibn Nafis described the circulation of the blood, 300 years before William Harvey discovered it. Muslims doctors also invented anaesthetics of opium and alcohol mixes and developed hollow needles to suck cataracts from eyes in a technique still used today.

11 The windmill was invented in 634 for a Persian caliph and was used to grind corn and draw up water for irrigation. In the vast deserts of Arabia, when the seasonal streams ran dry, the only source of power was the wind which blew steadily from one direction for months. Mills had six or 12 sails covered in fabric or palm leaves. It was 500 years before the first windmill was seen in Europe.

12 The technique of inoculation was not invented by Jenner and Pasteur but was devised in the Muslim world and brought to Europe from Turkey by the wife of the English ambassador to Istanbul in 1724. Children in Turkey were vaccinated with cowpox to fight the deadly smallpox at least 50 years before the West discovered it.

13 The fountain pen was invented for the Sultan of Egypt in 953 after he demanded a pen which would not stain his hands or clothes. It held ink in a reservoir and, as with modern pens, fed ink to the nib by a combination of gravity and capillary action.

14 The system of numbering in use all round the world is probably Indian in origin but the style of the numerals is Arabic and first appears in print in the work of the Muslim mathematicians al-Khwarizmi and al-Kindi around 825. Algebra was named after al-Khwarizmi’s book, Al-Jabr wa-al-Muqabilah, much of whose contents are still in use. The work of Muslim maths scholars was imported into Europe 300 years later by the Italian mathematician Fibonacci. Algorithms and much of the theory of trigonometry came from the Muslim world. And Al-Kindi’s discovery of frequency analysis rendered all the codes of the ancient world soluble and created the basis of modern cryptology.

15 Ali ibn Nafi, known by his nickname of Ziryab (Blackbird) came from Iraq to Cordoba in the 9th century and brought with him the concept of the three-course meal – soup, followed by fish or meat, then fruit and nuts. He also introduced crystal glasses (which had been invented after experiments with rock crystal by Abbas ibn Firnas – see No 4).

16 Carpets were regarded as part of Paradise by medieval Muslims, thanks to their advanced weaving techniques, new tinctures from Islamic chemistry and highly developed sense of pattern and arabesque which were the basis of Islam’s non-representational art. In contrast, Europe’s floors were distinctly earthly, not to say earthy, until Arabian and Persian carpets were introduced. In England, as Erasmus recorded, floors were “covered in rushes, occasionally renewed, but so imperfectly that the bottom layer is left undisturbed, sometimes for 20 years, harbouring expectoration, vomiting, the leakage of dogs and men, ale droppings, scraps of fish, and other abominations not fit to be mentioned”. Carpets, unsurprisingly, caught on quickly.

17 The modern cheque comes from the Arabic saqq, a written vow to pay for goods when they were delivered, to avoid money having to be transported across dangerous terrain. In the 9th century, a Muslim businessman could cash a cheque in China drawn on his bank in Baghdad.

18 By the 9th century, many Muslim scholars took it for granted that the Earth was a sphere. The proof, said astronomer Ibn Hazm, “is that the Sun is always vertical to a particular spot on Earth”. It was 500 years before that realisation dawned on Galileo. The calculations of Muslim astronomers were so accurate that in the 9th century they reckoned the Earth’s circumference to be 40,253.4km – less than 200km out. The scholar al-Idrisi took a globe depicting the world to the court of King Roger of Sicily in 1139.

19 Though the Chinese invented saltpetre gunpowder, and used it in their fireworks, it was the Arabs who worked out that it could be purified using potassium nitrate for military use. Muslim incendiary devices terrified the Crusaders. By the 15th century they had invented both a rocket, which they called a “self-moving and combusting egg”, and a torpedo – a self-propelled pear-shaped bomb with a spear at the front which impaled itself in enemy ships and then blew up.

20 Medieval Europe had kitchen and herb gardens, but it was the Arabs who developed the idea of the garden as a place of beauty and meditation. The first royal pleasure gardens in Europe were opened in 11th-century Muslim Spain. Flowers which originated in Muslim gardens include the carnation and the tulip.

“1001 Inventions: Discover the Muslim Heritage in Our World” is a new exhibition which began a nationwide tour this week. It is currently at the Science Museum in Manchester. For more information, go to

All images and graphic art courtesy of



  1. Rahul said


    I read this article with a lot of interest and would like to point out that a lot of what has been termed ‘Islamic’ discoveries are actually original work done by the Indians/Persians/Greeks/Egyptians much before Islam came around. For instance, the Calculation of the earth’s surface or the spherical shape of the earth was discovered by aryabhatta much earlier. Similarly, the pointed arch, algebra(almost everything except for the name), Cataract surgery(written about by sushruta who also started basic plastic surgery), the so-called arabic numerals and arguably chess were also all developed in India much before these ideas came to the Arabs.

    The principal contribution of the Islamic Empires in this time was in providing a stable, peaceful empire stretching all the way across the Middle East to India and China and in reducing anarchy thus encouraging trade and a free flow of ideas and information that had not happened earlier accross the known world. Books in greek/sanskrit/persian etc. were translated into Arabic and a freedom of thought was encouraged at a time when the rest of the world was falling in the grip of orthodoxy. There was an environment of intellectual ferment and libraries were set up and scholars were invited from India/Persia/China etc. to live, work and translate their books etc. Thus, much of the advancements that you pointed out above are more in the nature of synthesizing or bringing together and moving forward ideas which already existed. At the same time, they also moved back in a couple of areas, for instance, the concept of negative numbers which had already been accepted in India was rejected by the arabs.

    This is not to take away from the arabs achievements but the ideas and in particular the open-minded environment which made such developments possible in India(particularly in mathematics and astronomy) need to be acknowledged. Look up on the net and you can corroborate everything I have said.


  2. FAROOQ said

    AT RAHUL….
    Respected Rahul these inventions are mentioned after true researchs.And i am pretty sure Indians had nothing to do with them if it was then it would have been mentioned.Wicked rulers like the kaushans and Asoka ruled throughout india which was a land of peasants and farmers and for the last 1000 odd years Muslims of various origins have been ruling india while the people from our part of the world including muslims and hindus made no advancements in the field of education science medicene or astronomy! These were considered to be royal past times and ordinary people were discouraged to undertake such endeavors.
    So dear Rahul with all regards the history of the subcontinent should be studied again and scrutinized for even a single achievment that laid the basis of modern day science like the arab ones!

  3. sardar said

    This is not to take away from the arabs achievements but the ideas and in particular the open-minded environment which made such developments possible in India(particularly in mathematics and astronomy) need to be acknowledged. Look up on the net and you can corroborate everything I have said.

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